Articles on Nutrition and HD published in NZ Dog World
by Golden Retriever Breeder, Sy Guth

“In our work in veterinary medicine, we found that dogs and cats suffer from chronic subclinical scurvy during most of their lives and benefit from ascorbate supplementation. In the larger breeds of dogs, hip dysplasia, long regarded as a genetic defect, is merely due to a chronic insufficiency of ascorbate.” Dr Stone

Table of Contents

The Decade Long Quest & Journey to Reducing HD in Large Breed Dogs

First Vitamin C HD Study Results 2007 - 2008

Second Vitamin C HD Study Results 2009 - 2012

Hip X-Rays for the dogs in the Second HD Study of 8 dogs

The End of the Journey Lessons Learned

Articles appearing in New Zealand Dog World

Raw Feeding Tips

Lorgair Puppy Diets

Additional Research Articles, Book, and Links

The Decade Long Quest & Journey to Reducing HD in Large Breed Dogs

As a breeder, I look for ways to better the health and soundness of the dogs I breed.  In 2002, I recommended to my puppy owners a good quality kibble food available at that time.  3 of the 8 puppies from the 2002 litter were hip scored and the average score was 18.67.  The BVA average hip score for Golden Retrievers at that time was 18 so it would appear that my average was in the line with the BVA average.  The UK, NZ, and AU scoring is from 0 to 106 (each hip can score between 0 to 53) -- the lower the score the better.   On the surface, the average would look to be fine, but my concern was in the range of the scores -- 8 to 25.  There was no consistency in the scores.

The BVA 5-year mean average between 2007 and 2011 was 14.   During this same 5 year period, Sept 2007 - Aug 2014, my mean average score for 16 puppies in two studies was 6.31.  Mean score averages can be deceptive and one really needs to look at the range of scores to see if consistency is being achieved.  This has been achieved in my second study from 2009 - 2012 with a total score range of 1 to 7.

Amount of Vitamin C Puppies Mean Average Total Hip Score Range Parents Mean Average No of puppies scored
No Vitamin C 11.70 2 - 31 13.78 23
GNLD Vitamin C 230 mg - 450 mg 10.33 3 - 18 7.66 6
GNLD Vitamin C 900 mg 3.5 1 - 7 11.10 10 

Chronic Subclinical Scurvy:  Dr Belfield had this to say back in 1982 -  "Stress is the scourge of both man and dog.  Stress undermines resistance to disease and germs in part by depleting the body's stores of water-soluble vitamins, namely vitamin C and the B complex group."  (Stress can be both physical and/or emotional)   "For the size of the German Shepherd, Great Dane, Saint Bernard, and other large dogs, canine liver production of vitamin C is paltry.  This poor production, along with the nonstop stress, results in chronic subclinical scurvy.  The animal may not lapse into terminal scurvy but he will often become ill with some of the symptoms.  Hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD) ... is one example.  And so is hip dysplasia.   Both conditions are related to deficient vitamin C and poor collagen."

"The big-breed pup has an extraordinary need for large amounts of vitamin C.  The vitamin is needed in laying down the collagen.  He needs strong ligaments and tendons to hold bones and a heavy muscle mass in place.  He gets no vitamin C in his food.  If his liver doesn't produce enough, the animal is at risk, and from the worldwide incidence of hip dysplasia, it seems obvious that the liver of the domesticated dog is not up to the task."  Pages 190-191 How To Have A Healthier Dog, The Benefits of Vitamins and Minerals for Your Dog's Life Cycles.

The Introduction of GNLD Vitamin C For a variety of reasons, a 2006 litter of puppies from Kerry produced 3 clinically dysplastic puppies (1 hip only in two of the cases) and sent me back to researching the subject of hip dysplasia yet again - how to prevent it from happening.  These three dysplastic puppies had been a total shock as Kerry is 3 points lower than her mother and was mated to a sire that had been reducing the hip scores in my puppies.  Kerry's mother, Nikita with a total hip score of 23 was mated in 2004 and 2005 to the same sire as Kerry with the sire's hip score being a total 13, and had resulted in 3 puppies scored with totals of 6; 9; and 18.  The sire's other litter to a dam with a total hip score of 12 mated in 2004 had resulted in total scores of 3; 3; 7; and 11.  From the 2006 litter, only one of the three clinically dysplastic puppies was officially hip scored and her score was 5:26 = 31.  It seems pretty obvious that one hip was injured or came away from the socket from jumping up and landing on one leg because the ligaments and tendons are not strong enough to hold the hip socket in place and the fluid then leaks out and no fluid to replace it set up the scenario for HD - a scenario that Dr Belfield states is often associated with hip dysplasia.

 In September 2007, I undertook a mini-study of 7 + 1 puppies raised on the step-down and/or raw diets.  The diets trailed were with and without the GNLD Threshold (Sustained) Vitamin C in different dosages to see what the results might be.   After this study, I took onboard what Dr Belfield says about using Vitamin C -- which types of Vitamin C work to form good hips and the fact that it needs to be given in large enough dosages to be effective.  The results of this first study were mixed.  Two puppies x-rayed at 16 weeks and again at a year old showed marked improvement on 450 mg of GNLD Vitamin C.  Another puppy x-rayed at 16 weeks and again a year old showed little if any improvement on 230 mg GNLD Vitamin C.  A fourth puppy x-rayed at 8 months and kept on 230 mg Vitamin C showed no improvement.  A puppy reared on home-cooked and bones with lots of running and swimming scored well with no supplements.  A puppy kept on the GNLD Vitamin C to 6 months of age, scored OK, but not as well as the ones kept on the GNLD Vitamin C until they were scored.  A seventh puppy was reared on the Puppy BARF diet to 7 months and then on Canidae kibble with no GNLD Vitamin C and she scored second highest.   The results were encouraging, but I wasn't satisfied with the lack of consistency in the results as 7 months later an 8th puppy from Kerry's second 2008 litter reared on 450 mg of the GNLD Vitamin C scored a total 18.  There were no clinically dysplastic puppies in this litter, but I wasn't satisfied.

These results led me into a second study of 10 dogs from 2009 to 2014.  In this second study, all the puppies were fed 900 mg daily of GNLD Threshold Vitamin C plus Dr Kruger Joint & Muscle formula.  This diet appears to return great results no matter what the activity or stress level or the amount of ascorbic acid these dogs produced on their own under the normal conditions that large breed puppies are faced with daily.  The 900 mg returned acceptable results on a puppy under extreme stress conditions reared in the Red Zone of Christchurch where the seismic activity is the highest.  This puppy has felt thousands of earthquakes starting with the first big one in Christchurch in September 2010 - 9 days before the puppies were born.  Every time the liquefaction occurred, she was put in a boarding kennel until cleanup was completed.  Her stress levels have been far beyond any normal levels that most puppies experience.  A separate study of puppies under extreme stress circumstances would need to be conducted to determine if increasing the amount of GNLD Vitamin C would be of benefit under extreme stress circumstances.  However, the greatest joy has been the scores returned from Kerry's third and final litter.  4 of the 5 puppies were scored with total results of 2, 5, 5, and 7 -- fully demonstrating that insufficient ascorbic acid in the dog's system is the cause of inconsistency in hip score results, not hereditary.  This is my dual purpose line of very active dogs and they needed the additional ascorbic acid in a large enough daily dosage to return consistent and low hip scores -- meaning their hips were well formed and will lead to a lower probability of hip dysplasia later in life.  It also means the puppies are easier to train when they are not suffering from joint problems.

First Vitamin C HD Study of 8 Dogs
2007 - 2008
Mean average score = 9.25  
Note: JZ-1 & IY-1 litter sisters.  JY-2, HO-2, KE-2, and AN-2 litter mates.
Code Name Hip Scores Parents Hip Scores Diet Scored By
JZ-1 (female) 1:2 = 3 Totals 18 & 6 Grain-based kibble.   460 mg GNLD Vit C+ DK sups.   16 weeks x-ray indicated a total 14 - 11 point improvement.  Moderately active. Dr Wyburn
IY-1 (female) 10:6 = 16 Totals 18 & 6 Grain-based kibble.   230 mg GNLD Vit C+ DK sups.  16 week x-ray indicated between 16 and 18 - no change.  Moderately active. Dr Wyburn
JY-2 (female) 4:1 = 5 Totals 6 & 0 Grain-based kibble.   460 mg GNLD Vit C+ DK sups. 16 week x-ray indicated between 16 and 18 - 11 point improvement.  Moderately active Dr Wyburn
SR-3 (male) non-Lorgair bred 5:7 = 12 Totals 12 & 7 Grain-based kibble.   230 mg GNLD Vit C+ DK sups.  16 week x-ray indicated 12 - no change.  Active dog. Dr Wyburn
AB-1 (female) 7:11 = 18 Totals 20 & 11 Grain-based kibble.   460 mg GNLD Vit C+ DK sups.  Extremely active dog with lots of jumping..
Dr Wyburn
HO-2 (male) 4:4 = 8 Totals 6 & 0 Grain-based kibble.   460 mg to 6 months only + DK.  Moderately active dog.
Dr Wyburn
KE-2 (female) 1:1 = 2 Totals 6 & 0 Raw + Home-cooked + bones.  No supplements. Lots of running & swimming. Dr Wyburn
AN-2 (female) 5:5 = 10 Totals 6 & 0 BARF to 7 months; then Grain-based kibble + DK; no Vit C. Dr Wyburn


Second Vitamin C HD Study of 10 dogs
2009 - 2014
Mean average total score = 3.5
This Mini-Study is using a diet of 900 mg daily of GNLD Threshold (Sustained) Vitamin C + Dr Kruger Joint / Muscle formula.  Some dogs had raw meats added to the diet which progressed from 1/3 raw & 2/3 Orijen up to 6 months; then 2/3 raw & 1/3 Orijen up to 12 months; and then all raw from 1 year onward.   All Dams were given 900 mg GNLD Threshold (Sustained) Vitamin C through pregnancy and puppies started on GNLD Neo-C (All-C) at 3 weeks of age.  The results have been extremely satisfying and consistent within a narrow range of totals between 1 and 7.
Name Hip Scores Parents Hip Scores Diet Scored By
Angus (male) 0:1 = 1 Totals 5 & 8 Raw + Orijen + supplements Dr Wyburn
Darcy (female) 1:1 = 2 Totals 7 & 18 Raw + Orijen + supplements Dr Rawlinson
Pablo (male) 1:1 = 2 Total 5** & 12 grain-free kibble + suplmnts Dr Rawlinson
Winky (female) 1:1 = 2 Totals 16 & 7 Raw + Orijen + supplements Dr Rawlinson
Sunny (male) 1:1 = 2 (U)* Totals 20 & 7 Orijen + supplements Dr Rawlinson
Amy (female) 2:1 = 3 Totals 5** & 1** Raw + Orijen + supplements Dr Rawlinson
Ticketty-Boo (female) 2:3 = 5 Totals 20 & 7 Raw + Orijen + supplements Dr Rawlinson
Viking (male) 3:2 = 5 (U)* Totals 20 & 7 Royal Canin*** + supplements Dr Rawlinson
Skye (female) 3:3 = 6 Totals 12 & 18 Orijen + supplements Dr Rawlinson
Brandees (female) 3:4 = 7 Totals 20 & 7 Orijen + supplements Dr Rawlinson
*(U) = unofficially scored because the proper pedigree name was not on the x-ray plate.
** Parent was reared on GNLD Vitamin C and Dr Kruger supplements
***Lives in Tahiti -- no grain-free dog foods available. But was kept on the GNLD Threshold Vitamin C + Dr Kruger Joint & Muscle formula.

Hip X-Rays for the dogs in the Second HD Study of 10 dogs

Angus:  0:1 = 1

Sunny:  1:1 = 2

Pablo:  1:1 = 2

Ticketty-Boo:  2:3 = 5

Winky:  1:1 = 2

Amy:  2:1 = 3

Brandees: 3:4 = 7

Viking:  3:2 = 5

Skye:  3:3 = 6  This puppy was reared
under extreme stress conditions in the Red Zone of
Christchurch experiencing thousands of quakes
over a 20-month period and frequently boarded
whilst the liquefaction was cleaned up.
Skye was x-rayed and scored to see if puppies reared
in extreme stress conditions need more than
900 mg Vit C daily.  Judging from the results, the 900 mg
returned acceptable results.

Darcy:  1:1 = 2 

What has become evident is that active large breed dogs whose adult weight will be between 25 kg and 35 kg need 900 mg daily of GNLD Threshold (Sustained) Vitamin C to at least 18 months of age to produce consistently good hip results.   For extreme stress conditions such as active/frequent game retrieval, Husky sled driving, or emotional stress like frequent and ongoing earthquakes, may require larger dosages of Vitamin C.  The 900 mg of GNLD Threshold Vitamin C is 85% less than the amount of sodium ascorbate that Dr Belfield used in his studies.

For those who wish to try using GNLD Vitamin C to reduce the risk of hip dysplasia in their puppies there are a few of the facts that have been realised and need to be taken into consideration.  

  1. The adult weight of the dog is the guide as to how much GNLD Vitamin C needs to be administered.  I used 900 mg for Golden Retrievers where the girls are normally around 26 to 28 kg as adults and the males are around 35 kg.  If the adult weight is around 35 kg and above, then you need to double the amount of GNLD Vitamin C to achieve scores that are total 5 or less.  Breeders with dogs 35kg or more have found that using only 900 mg of the GNLD Vitamin C return scores of around total 10.  So if you want really low hip scores, you need to use a proper amount of the GNLD Vitamin C.  Smaller dogs who's weight will be less than 25kg should be able to return good scores using less than the 900 mg of GNLD Vitamin C.  As a breeder or puppy owner, you will need to run your own studies to find the right dosage for your size dog and lines that you are breeding.  The activity level of the dog has a lot to do with the dosage as well -- the more active the dog, the more GNLD Vitamin C they need because they will be burning more up.

  2. The other discovery that has been made by a couple of breeders in Australia is that those dogs living in high temperature zones appear to need twice the recommended amount and need to be hydrated.  There is no further help on this subject for the hot areas of the Northern Territory and Queensland at this time -- studies are still being conducted to find the right dosage for high temperature zones.

  3. As discussed above, really active dogs will need more GNLD Vitamin C because their bodies will use a great deal more.  Also dogs in high stress situations like active earthquake zones.  Although one Golden Retriever scored well on the normal 900 mg daily living in the Red Zone of Christchurch, there is no guarantee that all dogs under this kind of stress will do well on a normal dosage of GNLD Vitamin C.

  4. Those breeders who have experimented using the GNLD Vitamin C have, for the most part, achieved good hip scores for their dogs and these include many different breeds of dogs.  Those that have found the total average to be around 10, have either used less than the recommended amount; lived in high temperature areas; or have found their dogs weight to be a differential factor in using the GNLD Vitamin C as their dog's weight was not in the 25kg to 35 kg range and used 900 mg daily.  The GNLD Vitamin C will work, but must be given in a large enough dosage and daily without fail.

The difference using GNLD Vitamin C:

Studies by Dr Belfield and another scientific study done in Southern California, found that pure ascorbic acid (like you use in canning) and calcium ascorbate are both “duds” and “a waste of time and money” – and not adequate sources of vitamin C.  Ester-C contains calcium that is not good for the joints and can lead to the formation of crystals and stones in the dogs. 

I had pretty much come to the conclusion back in 2006 that the GNDL Vitamin C was special and powerful from my own use of it.  Belfield makes his own vitamin C formulas from sodium ascorbate, but the vitamin C levels are too high to import into NZ.

After years of using the GNLD Vitamin C products, for both the dogs and personally, it is clear that GNLD has an extremely high absorption rate into the body cells.  The GNLD Vitamin C formulas are molecularly-natural made from fruits and vegetables and produced without any chemicals.  100 mg of the Neo-C (All-C) is the equivalent of eating 4 small oranges.  900 mg of GNLD Threshold Vitamin C is the equivalent of eating 36 small oranges.  People who's stomach are not able to tolerate normal Vitamin C, report that they have no problems with the GNLD Vitamin C and are amazed at how fast it eliminates colds and flu.  Because Vitamin C is water soluble and doesn't stay in the body, it can be taken to bowel tolerance level.  The benefit for the dogs is that it synthesis' into collagen needed for the joints, ligaments, and muscle tissue extremely well. 

The final study proved that using 900 mg daily of the GNLD Threshold Vitamin C, the dogs only needed 15% of the amount Dr Belfield recommends be used to return great results.  900 mg of GNLD Threshold Vitamin C is 85% less than what Dr Belfield recommends to achieve the same results with sodium ascorbate given at 6,000 mg daily.  Vitamin C is water soluble and other types of Vitamin C go through the body in 2 hours.  GNLD Vitamin C formulas stay in the body longer than other types of Vitamin C -- 4 to 8 hours.

Although GNLD products are not available in stores, they can be sourced through distributors in over 60 countries world-wide. If you have an interest in becoming a GNLD Distributor, I can sign you up as a distributor and save you 25% on GNLD orders, drop Sy an email at  To buy the GNLD within New Zealand  go to .  If you would prefer to purchase the products at retail price and live outside New Zealand, send me an email and I will provide the name(s) of a distributor in your country

The Dr Kruger products can be sourced from (US and Canada), (Within NZ).  Note of clarity - the GNLD powder Vit C is no longer available.  The Neo-C is the same All C and Threshold Vit C is the same as Sustained Release Vit C.  Check the level of mg per tablet as they will vary in different parts of the world according to country regulations.  An update article on this subject ran in the April 2011 NZ Dog World.

1  Wendell 0. Belfield, D.V.M. and Irwin Stone, P.C.A., Megascorbic Prophylaxis and Megascorbic Therapy: A New Orthomolecular Modality in Veterinary Medicine, Journal of the International Academy of Preventive Medicine, 1975



Animal Ascorbate Production
Milligrams/Kg Body Wgt / per day
Snake 10
Tortoise 7
Mouse 275
Rabbit 226
Goat 190
Rat 150
Dog 40
Cat 40
Monkeys, Apes, Man 0

The End of the Journey Lessons Learned

Having come to the end of quest and journey, what strikes me most after a decade of piecing the puzzle together is how brain-washed we are by dog food manufacturers and veterinarians to believe what just isn't true.  The false assumptions and statements delayed my achieving the end results by years and my one regret is that I wish I had read Dr Belfield's book back in 2002.  The false statements include:

  • "100% complete and balanced nutrition."  This statement printed on almost every bag of commercial dog food is untrue because the heat process destroys all water based vitamins (B complex and C) and many other nutrients in the food.  To remedy this, synthetic nutrients are sprayed on the food at the end of the process.  Synthetic nutrients do not synthesis in the body the same as natural nutrients.  Further more, the extrusion process used to process dry dog foods cooked at high temperatures causes the protein to bind to the carbohydrates in grain-based foods thus making it difficult for the dog to digest the protein in the food.2  This has left our canine friends very devoid of essential nutrients.  Further more, 98% of the commercial dry dog foods on the worldwide market contain 40% to 50% grain.  Dogs do not have enzymes to digest grain and therefore are at a greater risk of Bt genetically modified DNA fractioning into their blood stream and eventually killing them due to high toxin levels from pesticides that they can no longer rid from their bodies.

  • "High protein foods will cause growth spurts in large breed dogs"   Having been concerned about this in the beginning, I now know that it is not true.  What is true is that dogs need to be fed appropriate amounts of food and their exercise needs to be in proportion to the food they are receiving.  Dogs fed too much food - no matter what the protein content and not exercised enough to utilise the calorie content will have growing spurts.  The growing spurts off-balances the puppy structural frame and puts more weight on one part of the puppy thus causing an increase risk of dysplasia -- be it hip or elbow.

  • "Hip Dysplasia is hereditary."    Dr Belfield stated that HD was not hereditary back in the early 1980s and everyone thought he was nuts.  However, his case for stating this is very sound and what is hereditary is the individual dog's ability to manufacture its own ascorbic acid.  Some dogs are better at this than others.  Those that are better, have lower incidents of hip dysplasia.  Those that are not good at producing their own ascorbic acid and are very active, have high incidents of HD.  In a study of 104 dogs "the scale of vitamin C levels in their blood measured from .02 milligrams up to .84 milligrams for each 100 cubic centimetres of blood.  That's a 42-fold difference."  Belfield - How To Have A Healthier Dog, pages 52 - 53.  The problem is that we don't test for how much vitamin C a puppy manufactures and so it is not until between 8-months and 18-months when we discover that a particular puppy was not producing enough vitamin C and ends up with hip dysplasia.  Stress and high activity exercise both use large amounts of ascorbic acid.  So the ascorbic acid issue is two-fold -- 1/  how much each puppy produces naturally in its liver and 2/ the individual stress and/or activity level of each puppy.  Most breeders and vets cannot get their heads around this issue.  It does go along way to explaining why after 3 decades of x-raying hips and elbows and encouraging breeders to only breed from low scoring dogs, that no remarkable progress has been made in lowering the incidence of hip dysplasia.  It also goes a long way to explain why a puppy from one litter can have a hip score of 4 and another have a hip score of 77 !!  One only needs to look at the diet fed to each of the puppies.  This is a true example from a breeder of German Shepherds here in NZ -- the puppy with the 4 was kept on GNLD Vitamin C, the puppy that scored 77 was not.  This is not a one-off example.   Read the article on Hip Dysplasia Stats - What are They Really Telling Us? and you will discover  the anomalies in the scores of over 4,000 Golden Retriever off-spring and that the scores are not what one would expect.  Proving that the parents have no bearing on the hip scores of their off-spring except for the level of ascorbic acid production passed on to their off-spring.

2  Effects of extrusion processing on nutrients in dry pet food; Quang D Tran, Wouter H Hendriks, and Antonius FB van der Poel, Animal Nutrition Group, Department of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, Marijkeweg 40, NL-6709 PG Wageningen, The Netherlands,  Human and Animal Physiology Group, Biology Faculty, Vinh University; 182 Le Duan street, Vinh, Vietnam;  J Sci Food Agric 88:1487–1493 (2008)


These articles are PDF files - click on the article picture to open.  Once you have saved it to your computer, use the "back arrow" in your browser to return to this page for the second article.  The articles may be reprinted in dog club magazines provided the article includes an acknowledgement that permission was given for reprint by NZ Dog World Magazine and Sy Guth and no changes are made to the content of the articles.


Why Use GNLD
Molecularly Natural Vitamin C
for Puppies and Dogs?

click on picture for PDF file
How Dogs Digest Different Foods
NZ Dog World  March 2009
Choosing a Diet for Your Dog
NZ Dog World  October 2009
Hip Dysplasia Stats -
What are They Really Telling Us?
NZ Dog World  Dec 2009 / Jan 2010
What Affect Are GM Foods
Having on the Health of Our Dogs?
NZ Dog World  October 2010

The PDF file is nearly 1 meg so may take awhile to load
Adding Supplements for Optimum Health
Cellular Nutrition - Orthomolecular Medicine
NZ Dog World  Dec 2010 / Jan 2011

The PDF file is 1/2 a meg so may take a while to load
Vitamin C and HD - Revisited
February 2011
The PDF file is 1/2 a meg so may take a while to load
Defect Genes and Inbreeding
When an outcross breeding isn't an outcross breeding
June 2011
The PDF file is 1/2 a meg so may take a while to load

Raw Feeding Tips 

For those who want to try raw feeding, here are some tips I have found from my experience in raw feeding:

  • The change over from grain fed foods to raw is best when taken slow.  Some people just bite the bullet and make the change and their dogs handle the change fine, but other dogs don't.  So to save back-tracking, first cut out all grain foods -- commercial or home-cooked.  Grains inhibit the dog's natural enzymes.  These enzymes are needed to digest raw foods.  Dog's do not have natural enzymes to digest grains, so the grains go through the body without benefit and if they are from genetically modified crops can do great damage to the dog which will end in an early death.

  • Feed one type of protein for two weeks -- eg chicken.  This can be chicken mince, chicken necks, chicken frames, chicken thighs, etc

  • On the third week add a new protein to the diet.  Keep adding one new protein each week until you have the raw feeding selection you want.

  • If you have been feeding grain based commercial foods for a long time, it may take several months for your dog's enzymes to fully re-establish themselves and your dog's gut to repair itself.  Grains upset the dog's natural enzymes.  Adding some yogurt to the raw meals may help by adding pro-biotics.  I fed Dr Kruger formula once a day with the morning meal because it has 4 digestive enzymes and this made the transition to raw easier for me.

  • If you have a dog with a history of pancreatic problems -- go very easy on fatty foods.  This seems to trigger the runs and causes flare ups.

  •  Don't overfeed.  I found in the beginning I was feeding far too much.  To remedy this, I weight all the dogs raw meals except brisket bones and pig trotters.

The measurements below are starting guidelines.  Each dog is an individual and their needs may vary.  Feed for one or two months and then note the results and then adjust as needed.

Altered dogs -- feed 1% body weight a day.  eg a dog that weighs 30 kg would get 300 grams for the day.  This can be one or two meals.   For very active altered dogs -- feed 2% body weight a day.

Non-altered dogs -- feed 2% body weight a day.  For a 30 kg dog this would be 600 grams a day.

Very active working dogs -- feed 3% body weight a day.  For a 30 kg dog this would be 900 grams a day.

  • Feed a variety of foods so the dogs get a variety of nutrients.  I like to give 1 teaspoon of Dr Kruger Supplement daily to fill any missing gaps in nutrition and keep my dog's immune system healthy.  My dogs also get GNLD Threshold Vitamin C daily.

  •  I have fed grain-free Orijen with the raw diet and not had any problems. If you feed twice a day, 14 meals a week, oOf these meals, 3 can be Orijen.  If you have a dog with low thyroid issues, feeding a minimum of 5 cups / week of Orijen 6-fish formula may raise the thyroid into the healthy part of the normal range.  It has worked on 4 Golden Retriever females.

  • Be sure to give at least one good bone a week to keep the dog's teeth clean.  They are also very satisfying for the dog.

  • Adding GNLD Threshold Vitamin C and a good vitamin E supplement to the diet will keep your dog younger and help them to live longer.   The doses can be found in the chart in the article on Cellular nutrition (see articles above).

Beef Brisket - 311 grams

Chicken Frame - 370 grams

Chicken Mince - 250 grams

Chunky Beef - 307 grams

Fish - 292 grams

Green Tripe - 301 grams

Lamb Mince - 307 grams

Pig Trotter - 338 grams

Lorgair Puppy Diets

Currently, Lorgair puppy owners have a choice of feeding their puppies 3 different grain-free recommended diets.  The variety in recommended diets makes it easier for the puppy owners to choose one that fits their lifestyle, whilst still providing their puppy with a great start to life.  All Lorgair Puppy owners must commit to keeping their puppy on the Dr Kruger and GNLD Vitamin C to 18-months of age.

The puppy protein step-down diet was based on trials I conducted on many litters between 2003 and 2008 and was based on grain-based kibble foods plus other ingredients.  It is recommended only for puppies fed regular grain-based kibble foods.  The grain-based foods comprise 98% of the kibble food on the world-wide market.  The Lorgair Step-down Diet is no longer one of the Lorgair recommended diets.

Good dog foods are difficult to find in New Zealand.  Since early 2009, Orijen grain-free kibble has been available in several formulas in NZ including a Large Breed Puppy formula.  This is the only 6-star dog food being imported into New Zealand.  Their food is unique in that all the meats and fish are de-boned.  Their studies found that this helps to reduce the risk of HD when using processed foods.  Orijen uses regional fresh foods in the processing of their dog food -- never frozen.  I recommend adding raw meat and fish and meaty bones to a grain-free dry food diet.  To reduce the risk of HD, the Dr Kruger and GNLD Vitamin C supplements are added.  Mixing raw foods and grain-based foods is at odds with the dog's digestive system and will cause the dog problems in digesting the raw foods because the grains suppress the dog's natural enzymes.  Dogs have no need for carbohydrates and Orijen grain-free has no more than 20% complex carbohydrates compared to the grain based dry kibble foods that use simple carbohydrates and have 40% to 50% carbohydrates.

Lorgair only recommends Orijen and raw foods.  The star ratings are assigned by those who review the dog foods and can be found on the website   All other dog foods imported into New Zealand are 1-star to 3-star foods and only two of these are free of genetically modified ingredients.  Just because the manufacture claims they meet US FDA standards does not mean they are GM free.  US FDA approves GM foods -- both for humans and animals.  GM foods are modified with pesticides and are in most of the imported dry dog foods in NZ.

The only dog roll I recommend is Butch Black Label because it is made from all fresh meat and veggie ingredients and doesn't have any nasty preservatives -- you can see the carrots, peas, and rice in this dog roll and it is lightly cooked at a low temperature preserving more of the nutrients than those cooked at high temperatures.    It does contain 2% rice (grain) and because it is lightly cooked does not have as high a nutrient content as raw food.

A good supplement that supplies pro-biotics, 4 digestive enzymes, vitamins, minerals, and all the trace minerals is Dr Kruger Ultimate Formulas.  This supplement will help keep good and bad bacteria in check and it comes in 3 formulas.  The puppy formula contains desecrated liver rich in the B vitamins which aide in mental and physical growth for the puppies.  At 6 months of age, I switch the puppies to the Joint & Muscle formula.  It is a nutritional gap filler that rises the nutritional level for dogs from "existing" to "optimal".  For dogs fed on grain based kibble which normally contains between 40% - 50% grain - it is absolutely necessary.  Dogs do not have enzymes to digest grains, so they pass through the dog undigested.  Dr Kruger adds enzymes that aides the dog to digest the grains to a greater degree.  Because vitamin C is killed by heat, meaning that the vitamin C added to dry dog food is killed by the baking process, I feed GNLD molecularly natural vitamin C daily, vitamin E, and Dr Kruger supplements to my adult dogs and same to the puppies except with twice as much vitamin C daily to puppies to 18 months of age to ensure they are getting enough vitamin C to make collagen in sufficient amounts.  Dogs naturally make some vitamin C in their bodies, but we have changed their diet greatly by feeding dry dog foods, and they have always been at the low end of the vitamin C production charts when it comes to producing their own vitamin C.1  Natural Vitamin C is important, because the body synthesises it into collagen.  Collagen holds the bones together and provides padding for the joints and makes the ligaments and tissues around the joints more elastic.  This is particularly important for large breed dogs that are prone to hip dysphasia.  For more information on nutrition, reference my articles above.

Another important note on dog foods that goes a long way to explaining why so many of our dogs are getting sick from diseases of liver, kidney, and cancer and having so many issues with reproduction has to do with genetically modified (GM) ingredients used in dry dog foods.   GM crops, for the most part, have Bt spliced into the DNA of each cell of the plant -- Bt is a pesticide designed to burst open when a bug eats the plant and causes the bug to die.  Good for keeping bug populations down, but it also has an adverse affect on animals, especially the ones who can not digest the grains.  Further more, studies have proven that the DNA from plants is transgenetic meaning that the plant DNA can modify animal and human DNA and once the genes are modified, they are passed on to their offspring.  The only dry dog foods I have been able to verify as GM free in New Zealand are Orijen, Canidae, Nutrience, and Royal Canin.  I have written to all the major dog food companies and these are the only ones who claim to be GM free.  Lorgair Goldens were fed on  Canidae and Nutrience from 2004 to 2009.  Prior to that they were fed on Nature's Recipe which ceased importing to NZ in 2003.  Current Lorgair diets include raw meats; green tripe; and bones and some Orijen on occassion.  NZ Dog World, October 2010 ran an article on the effects of GM foods on humans and animals.

Given all the warnings about high protein not being good for puppies, I did have my concerns.  But as I watched the first puppy, and now subsequent puppies grow on the current diet, I was impressed that they stayed in proportion.  Angus, the first puppy, had a very brief growth spurt at 3 months and an increase in exercise quickly brought him back in proportion.  The Orijen + raw diet has kept all the other puppies growing in proportion.


Additional Articles and Links that may be of interest

Source for Orijen Dog Food -- Orijen is sourced direct from the importer / distributor in Northland and sent via courier direct to your door.   There is a stockist list on the website.  

Source for Dr Kruger's Ultimate Supplements -- Dr Kruger are sourced direct from the distributor (Lapdog Ltd) in Canterbury and sent via post direct to your door.  0800 LAPDOG or

Source for GNLD Vitamin C -- GNLD products can be sourced from Lapdog Ltd in Canterbury and sent via post direct to your door.  0800 LAPDOG or .

Dog Food Links

An excellent website on the analysis of what is in dog foods --  Sponsored by the Boxer Club in the US.

Canterbury Pet Foods, Bradley's Road, Ohoka, No. Canterbury, 03 312 6502.  Raw meats and mixes.  Raw foods based in North Island.

Raw / frozen minced chicken (pet food) and chicken carcasses - Mad Butchers and RaeWard.

Orijen grain-free - - ingredients in Dr Kruger Ultimate Supplement.  Refer to the menu items under Dr Kruger.

Research Articles

Article - Natural Pet Health

Article - The Science of Vaccine Damage

Articles - Toxic Gut Syndrome and Nutrition - Is It A Factor In Bloat &Torsion?

Articles - Commercial Dog Food's Deadly Ingredients

Book -- How To Have A Healthier Dog; the Benefits of Vitamins and Minerals for Your Dog's Life Cycles, by Wendell O Belfield, D.V.M and Martin Zucker with a Foreword by Dr Linus Pauling


Print version available at  

or Amazon


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